Baptiste, HP, Orvosh-Kamesnki, H., Kamenski, C (2005) American presidents and their attitudes, beliefs, and actions surrounding education and multiculturalism: A series of research studies in educational policy. Multicultural Education 25(4), 28-41.
This article studies the presidencies of Ronald Reagan, George H.W Bush , and William Jefferson Clinton, in terms of how their policies affected the development of social change and social justice during their time in service. The authors present each president in six installments. They describe the social currency of the times each president grew up, the world situation at the time of their presidency, the actions, policies, and political decisions that took place when they became president, and a conclusion of each president’s influence in multicultural America. Although the article seems biased on their preference of Clinton’s policies, it is a good article to refer to and examine what was done during the last 20 years of American government, and whether things have actually changed.
Chin, J.L (2004) Cultural competence in a multicultural society. Journal of Quality and Participation 27 (4), 19.
The author shows different ways in which we can assess our own knowledge on multicultural issues, cultural perspectives, and changes in our society due to multicultural influx. The article demonstrates the impact that incoming multi-ethnic groups have already placed in today’s society ranging from literature, to educational reforms, to technology integration, and everyday interactions. The article also shows a possible look in the future, as it projects what society would be like by the year 2050 if the changes in demographics continue to occur the way they are today. With this in mind, the author predicts a multiethnic and highly technological society that could only come to life if we, in our current time, learn to understand what it takes to accept changes and admit to inclusion.
George. D, Yancey, G. (2004) Taking stock in America’s attitude toward cultural diversity: An analysis of public deliberation on multiculturalism, assimilation, and intermarriage. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, 20(3), 2-20.
This article reviews recent research performed on the diverse opinions from the American public in terms of their acceptance of multiculturalism as a reality shared within human relationships and sociology. The article focuses in the inability of Americans to accept multiculturalism as a way of life, and how to some Americans this is still a topic of taboo. The authors share that there are several lines of thought within the country, and that there are patterns of acceptance depending on the geographical location of some of the individuals interviewed, i.e., some parts of the United States seem to be more accepting than others. The importance of this research article is based on the public’s perception of the multicultural influx that continues to occur in the United States, and how public deliberation has influenced political and social changes within each of the states where the research was performed.
Gutierrez, L., Rosegrant-Alvarez, A. Nemon, H., Lewis, E (1996) Multicultural community organizing: A strategy for change. Social Work 41(5), 501-507.
This article is pivotal in developing a thesis on how multicultural influx has impacted the changes occurring in society today. This is a comprehensive look at how community planners should include diverse ethnic group in the creation of programs and support systems within society. The programs and services that are created within each group must include the needs of individuals whose backgrounds might not be the same as those of the majority. The authors mention diverse needs that go beyond multicultural heritage: The needs of individuals with disabilities are addressed, as well as those of single mothers, blended families, and families with at-risk children. The importance of this research is that, as the American society becomes more heterogeneous, the needs become diversified as well. Hence, having a plan of action that would include all the required tools will result in a stronger group that can find support in a well-organized backbone.
Hartmann, D., Gerteis, J. (2005) Dealing with diversity: Mapping multiculturalism in sociological terms. Sociological Theory, 23(2), 219-239.
This article helps to point out the origins of the study of social culture, and how the influx of multicultural populations has re-shaped social sciences. There have been debates regarding multicultural education, or better yet, the lack thereof within colleges and universities who train social workers and other community professionals. The authors insist that the inclusion of multiculturalism in academic curricula is the reason why there have not been enough assessment tools that are efficient enough to target the particular needs of minority groups. By offering this research, the authors aimed to provide what several textbooks have not been able to: A way to understand multicultural terms in a scholar way. The article is highly helpful in conceptualizing what are the current needs that the field of sociology is facing in lieu of a lack of better training and information. Considering that multicultural education is one of the newer branches of social sciences, the authors advocate for wider and broader research opportunities where social scientist can be able to point out what areas need to be revisited to enhance the available information regarding some social groups.
Kalekin-Fishman, D. (2004) Diagnosing inequalities in schooling: Ogbu’s orientation and wider implications Intercultural Education 15(4), 414-430.
This article is important for the depth component because it shows a sample of social change, this time in a school. One of the social systems that is most affected by the lack of proper research in the area of multiculturalism is the school system. By observing the patterns of some school systems, the author was able to notice the lack of consistency that pervades in many public schools that still do not properly address the assessment and education of minorities. The problem with schools and minorities seemed to be put to rest with the integration of schools in the South of the United States and with Brown vs. Board. However, the author insists that there are still wide inequalities, and that Brown vs. Board was only a figment of the major changes that school systems would undergo as the influx of minorities continues to occur. This article is consistent with the review of the depth component, which is to understand the changes that curriculums all over America will have to cope with.
Lucas, T ; Villegas, A. (2002) Preparing Culturally Responsive Teachers: Rethinking the curriculum. Journal of Teacher Education 53 (2), 1
This article is pivotal for this research because it shows the trends in the multicultural population shifts that have been occurring since the year 2000. These changes are asking for a more thorough teacher preparation program that will prepare education professionals with the tools needed to accommodate the needs of diverse ethnic groups inside the classroom. The authors argue that the current teacher education programs available only superficially cover multiculturalism by offering optional education courses that future teachers can opt not to take. Hence, the authors contend that Higher Education institutions must seriously take a look into how they are preparing the future teachers of America with the responsibilities of attending and educating diverse populations in the ever-changing American classroom.
Middleton, R., Rollins, C., Harley, D. (1999) The historical and political context of the civil rights of persons with disabilities: A multicultural perspective for counselors. Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development 27 (2), 120-129
The purpose of this article is to explain the historical significance of the 1964 Civil Rights Act (CRA) in advancing the rights for persons with disabilities. This act, linked with the American with Disabilities Act (ADA) and the 1992 amendments to the Rehabilitation Act (The Rehab Act), are some of the biggest social reforms in America. These reforms show an impact in other minorities and multicultural groups within the country, as they embrace the ongoing changes going on in our country. The authors explain the reasons for the acceptance of the role and importance of affirmative action, and cultural diversity in society. They also make a series of recommendations to assist the counseling practitioner and educator in aiding persons with disabilities in improving the quality of their lives.
Mitchell, K. (2004) Geographies of identity: Multiculturalism unplugged. Progress in Human Geography 28(5), 641–651.
This article is another attempt to understand multiculturalism, society and self-identity. The importance of this research lies on what seems to be a pattern of behavior of certain incoming, ethnically diverse groups and how the manage to blend in within. The article aims to explain terminology associated with the study of social culture. It also makes a note to point out that multiculturalism is not a fad, but an ongoing process where a society changes slowly but surely. It is notable to mention that the article does a good job at pointing out that multiculturalism is here to stay, and will not be deterred by philosophy or politics. Ethnically- diverse groups will continue to enter and leave a country, and there will always be a group that will find the conditions of the new territory proper enough for them to remain there. The article does a good job at explaining the terms needed to understand the process of cultural assimilation. It also gives a “heads up” as far as what is absolutely necessary for a future sociologist to know in order to research a culture, country or race in a proper way.
Schaller, M (1994) Reckoning with Reagan: America and its President during the 1980s: NY. Oxford University Press
This reading is essential to be able to evidence the way things were in America during the Reagan administration in terms of society, demographics, racial tolerance, economy and education. The importance of this reading is that it support Torres’s (1998) further analysis on the American way of life and how it was portrayed in television, demonstrating that America was practically living in oblivion to the changes in its culture. This type of reaction was typical of many Reagan followers, and was an effect of Reagan’s own attitude towards the changes taking place: Ignoring them and pretending that they will go away. Schaller makes a wonderful recollection of memories showing that the eighties during Reagan were indeed times when the rich were richer, the poor were poorer, and the obvious went to oblivion. The image of the President and his influence in the American mentality are well-evidenced in this literature and this is the reason why it was selected for the purposes of this research.
Symonds, W. (2005) America the uneducated. Business Week 39 (60), 121-122
This article discusses how the education level of America’s workforce could decline in the future due to the country’s changing demographic trends. This information comes from a report released by the National Center for Public Policy & Higher Education. The author explains that as, baby boomers retire, society could be replaced by minorities willing to work for lower wages, and thus with no need to obtain a college degree. The article shows bias, yet is supported by comments and other information provided by high-level government officials who blame most of the problem in social reforms that have weakened our social systems. In their opinion the “No Child Left Behind” act has a lot to be blamed for, since it does not realistically address the educational needs of classrooms which are growing demographically.
Torres, S. (1998) Living color: Race and television in the United States. Duke University Press
The importance of Torres’s research on the history of US television and race is that it evidences that the American mentality is directly reflected in the tendencies of the times. Torres takes a view of what were the most popular shows particularly during the Reagan era, and she explains what paradigms and models were shown to the public as the way “America should be”. Torres explains that television portrayed Reaganism: A mostly white, blue-collard America, or the typical white American middle class family. The opulence of shows were also resonant to the opulence of the eighties, as the rich and the poor had gaps that were wider than ever. In conclusion, Torres offers that race has only taken an open door within television only recently, especially since the eighties, where racial demarcation was the order of the day.
Watson, S.; Miller, T.; Driver, J.; Rutledge,V.; McAllister, D. (2005) English language learner representation in teacher education textbooks: A null curriculum? Education 126 (1), p. 148
This research is another critical analysis on the importance of including multiculturalism in teacher preparation programs. The authors argue that the curriculum is not taking enough consideration when including Low English Proficiency (LEP) student populations at the time of preparing the text that goes with required basal readers. The authors also contend that the textbooks do little in finding ways to correctly convey to teachers in training how to deal with language processing difficulties with minority students, in lieu of the speed at which the American classroom continues to change demographically. As a final installment, the authors advocate that further work is needed in this area, and that the efforts that have been done to this day have still to catch up with the changing times.
Weeramanthri, T (2000) Ethnicity not race: A public health perspective. Australian Journal of Social Issues (35) 1, 1.
This article offers a variety of definitions to the term “ethnicity”, “race” and “culture”, but this time it is offered from a medical perspective. According to Weeramanthri, these terminologies are particularly diversified in medical research, because confusing them could lead to overgeneralizations. In his research, Weeramanthri is very specific in stating that ethnicity is indeed a regionally-based affiliation to a particular group, whereas race connotes the genetic predisposition for one person to belong to a group. Making a point to differentiate these two terms will help avoid the possibility of bias or biased language when reporting findings. The importance of this article is that it helps also in the field of sociology, because having this type of black and white definitions tended to these terms avoids confusion and mishandling of research conclusion that could be interpreted as discriminatory.
Wing S.D. (1991) A model for cultural diversity training. Journal of Counseling
and Development 70 (1), 99-105
Although this article is over 15 years past, it shows the beginnings of the inclusion of multiculturalism and the trends that began to take place in the early 1990’s. America’s government under Bill Clinton saw a myriad of changes as minorities were included in programs like never before. The early 1990’s were years that witnessed the creation of new programs, and the birth of a new vision where inclusion was key. As a result of this, educational programs, social programs, and training programs were developed in order to accommodate the changes taking places. This article offers a view in the past of America when the multicultural mentality was just beginning to take off. Using this as a reference is essential to establish a history of how the end of the 20th century was also the beginning of a whole new ideology in our country.
Young, R., Sharifzadeth, V. (2004) Aftereffect of 9-11: A call to balance patriotism and multiculturalism in the classroom. Multicultural Perspectives 5 (2), 34-38
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